Em quais áreas podemos realizar a aplicação do PMBOK?

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

A aplicação do PMBOK já foi testada e aprovada não apenas no meio acadêmico, como em casos práticos em empresas reais. Como você deve saber, o Project Management Body of Knowledge, desenvolvido pelo PMI Institute, é, desde seu lançamento em 1996, a principal referência em gestão de projetos.

Organizações de diferentes áreas e com objetivos variados têm aplicado seus princípios e esquemas com resultados igualmente positivos. Mas, para isso, é necessário conhecê-lo mais a fundo, já que ele é composto de um total de 49 etapas para que seja implementado.

Sem pretender esmiuçar todas essas fases aqui, neste artigo vamos nos aprofundar no PMBOK, apontando para algumas das suas muitas possibilidades de uso. Vamos em frente?

O que é e qual a importância do Guia PMBOK na gestão de projetos

A história do Guia PMBOK começa em 1983, com a publicação do artigo “Ethics, Standards and Accreditation Committee Final Report”, que ficou mais conhecido pela sigla ESA. De autoria do Project Management Institute, foi a primeira tentativa de documentar oficialmente os pilares de gestão de projetos e, assim, criar uma padronização internacional. O projeto evoluiu, chegando em 2017 à sua sexta edição, já traduzida para mais de 10 idiomas. 

Tamanho alcance se explica pela abrangência com que o guia trata da implementação de projetos, destacando-se pela sua versatilidade. Até hoje, não há conhecimento de uma empresa ou segmento que não tenha conseguido aplicar a metodologia em seus projetos. 

Por isso, vale destacar as 10 áreas de conhecimento do Guia PMBOK e mostrar de que forma elas se articulam no contexto das empresas para gerar resultados.

Integração

Empresas são organismos vivos e, por isso, precisam de ter seus diferentes “órgãos” atuando sempre em sinergia. É disso que trata a área da integração em um projeto orientado pelo PMBOK.

Escopo 

Objetivos, metas, o que deve e o que não deve ser incluído no projeto é definido pela área do conhecimento do escopo. 

Cronograma 

O fator tempo é limitado e quem gerencia projetos precisa coordenar muito bem seu uso. Nesse aspecto, é necessário estipular prazos para garantir assim sua finalização em tempo hábil.

Custos

Outro fator limitado é quantidade de recursos disponíveis para dar conta de um projeto. Logo, sua conclusão depende de um orçamento que dê conta da realização de todas as etapas previstas. 

Qualidade

Um projeto comprometido com o sucesso deve garantir os melhores padrões de qualidade, que devem ser definidos por especialistas, sempre orientados por pesquisas de mercado e estudos junto ao consumidor final, entre outras ferramentas.

Recursos

Que tipo de recursos serão necessários para dar continuidade ao projeto? Definir e gerir esses recursos é também fundamental, segundo o Guia PMBOK.

Comunicações

Projetos são, via de regra, desenvolvidos em equipe. Por isso, é preciso cuidar do gerenciamento de comunicação, estabelecendo canais adequados para transmissão de informação entre elas.

Riscos

Nesta área do conhecimento, os especialistas avaliam as probabilidades de riscos, tanto nos aspectos positivos quanto negativos. Dessa forma, podem apontar para as possibilidades de êxito ou fracasso de um projeto.

Aquisições

Ao longo de um projeto, é esperado que sejam feitas aquisições conforme a etapa em curso. É disso que trata essa área de conhecimento.

Partes interessadas 

Uma empresa não é apenas seus colaboradores e clientes. Sendo assim, é necessário identificar todas as pessoas, empresas, instituições e parceiros que possam ser impactados direta ou indiretamente pela realização de um projeto. Dessa forma, é possível avaliar as expectativas dos envolvidos e, a partir disso, criar estratégias para engajar e motivar.

Em quais áreas pode ser feita a aplicação do PMBOK

Considerando sua abrangência, o Guia PMBOK é indicado para incontáveis empresas de diversas áreas. Veja alguns exemplos nesse sentido.

Supply Chain

A aplicação do PMBOK é recomendada para projetos nos quais se busca aumentar a eficiência das entregas e o controle de estoques ou de estudos de impacto de modais.

TI

Da criação de sites e aplicativos até a estruturação de redes inteiras, profissionais do ramo de Tecnologia da Informação também podem tirar proveito desse método. Isso se verifica, por exemplo, ao aplicar técnicas como o “lançamento suave”, em que um software é testado em ambiente restrito até que suas funções estejam totalmente calibradas.

Recursos Humanos

Não é apenas em projetos envolvendo fatores materiais ou imateriais que o PMBOK se aplica. Na gestão de pessoas, ele pode ser implementado com o mesmo aproveitamento, ao tratar, por exemplo, de métodos para reduzir o absenteísmo e o turnover.

Quais são os principais diferenciais competitivos ao utilizar o guia

A aplicação sistemática e controlada dos princípios do Guia PMBOK gera uma série de benefícios e desdobramentos positivos. Os mais destacados deles você confere a partir de agora.

Organização

Empresas não se apoiam apenas em operações de rotina, embora exista um conjunto de atividades que se repetem ao longo do tempo. Para se manterem competitivas, é indicado que de tempos em tempos elas renovem suas práticas e processos. No entanto, implementar essas inovações exige uma capacidade de organização considerável. O PMBOK é útil para orientar sobre o que, como, quando e onde fazer para começar.

Previsibilidade

O grande desafio para empresas de todos os segmentos é tornar seus resultados previsíveis e, assim, escaláveis. A implementação de processos com o PMBOK ajuda a identificar processos, deficitários ou não, permitindo assim que seus efeitos sejam previstos.

Otimização dos recursos

Como você viu, uma das áreas de conhecimento do guia é a que trata do uso dos recursos e da definição do orçamento. Com isso, sua empresa pode fazer mais com menos, além de ganhar capacidade de ajustar seu budget conforme a necessidade.

Inteligência de negócios

Não há empresa que melhore ou registre crescimento sem desenvolver sua Inteligência de Negócios, mais conhecida por BI. Essa capacidade só vem quando existe um repositório de dados estruturado, do qual se possa tirar insights e tomar decisões com base em informação.

Melhoria contínua

Toda empresa que deseja se manter em constante evolução precisa implementar o conceito Kaizen — melhoria contínua — em suas atividades. Por outro lado, é preciso primeiro estimular e consolidar uma cultura organizacional em que prevaleça o controle e a organização. A aplicação do PMBOK, nesse aspecto, é um ótimo ponto de partida para se tornar uma empresa comprometida com a melhoria em tempo integral.

Outra forma de implementar o guia com sucesso é investir em formação. Se é esse seu objetivo, faça contato conosco. É um prazer contribuir com seu crescimento!

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