Descubra o que é PMBOK e por que ele é tão importante

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

Atualmente, é praticamente impossível abordar a gestão de projetos sem falar do PMBOK (Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ou Guia do Conjunto de Conhecimentos de Gerenciamento de Projetos). Ele apresenta um conjunto de práticas de gerenciamento que podem ser aplicadas nos mais diversos projetos, independentemente da dimensão, prazo, orçamento, pessoal e nicho.

As diretrizes e conhecimentos contidos no guia têm como objetivo auxiliar administradores e gestores a ampliar a eficiência da empresa, gerar valor e contemplar as necessidades dos clientes. Pode-se dizer que ele é uma ferramenta capaz de auxiliar na redução dos custos, na padronização e otimização das atividades.

Quer saber mais sobre o PMBOK? Confira neste artigo o que é guia, quais vantagens o seu uso apresenta e que áreas do conhecimento são contempladas!

O que é o PMBOK?

O Guia de Conhecimentos de Gerenciamento de Projetos pode ser compreendido como um grande compilado de ferramentas, normas, técnicas, processos e conceitos relacionados ao “ciclo de vida de um projeto”. Publicado pela primeira vez em 1996, o PMBOK é de autoria do Project Management Institute (PMI).

Sua história remonta o início dos anos 80, ocasião em que foi publicado o artigo “Ethics, Standards, and Accreditation Committee Final Report”. Desde essa época, o objetivo central era promover a padronização de práticas de gerência de projetos. A versão mais recente do guia (6ª edição) foi lançada em setembro de 2017 e agrupa conhecimentos de gerenciamento a partir de 5 grupos e 10 áreas do conhecimento (descritas a seguir).

Embora o guia seja aplicado nos mais diversos ambientes, cabe ressaltar que ele não se trata de uma metodologia. O PMBOK não se refere às abordagens específicas para os diversos tipos de projetos existentes. Um projeto de desenvolvimento de software, por exemplo, tem particularidades diferentes daqueles de construção civil.

O material oferece uma visão geral e não se atém às especificidades de cada organização. Tampouco, apresenta modelos únicos a serem aplicados. Na verdade, o guia contém as melhores práticas para gerenciamento de projetos. Com isso, ele se tornou reconhecido internacionalmente como um padrão que serve de inspiração para a grande parte das metodologias existentes.

Quais são as vantagens do PMBOK?

O PMBOK é utilizado como padrão para obtenção da certificação PMP (Profissional de Gerenciamento de Projetos), baseado nas práticas de excelência das empresas. Portanto, uma de suas vantagens é que os recursos contidos nele foram testados e o certificado é válido em mais de 150 países. Existem outras vantagens! Veja:

  • padronização de práticas em todos os setores da empresa;
  • sistema padronizado entre diferentes empresas e aprimoramento dos fluxos de comunicações;
  • auxílio na mitigação e gestão dos riscos;
  • redução de erros e retrabalhos;
  • aumento da qualidade e confiabilidade dos projetos, bem como da eficiência da empresa;
  • conhecimentos adaptáveis a cada projeto;
  • redução de custos, aumento da produtividade e satisfação dos clientes e profissionais;
  • controle do desenvolvimento de projetos;
  • customização de projetos a partir das diretrizes do guia.

Quais são os grupos de processos do PMBOK?

Segundo o Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, a administração de um projeto é um macroprocesso que pode ser estruturado em 5 grupos principais interligados. As funções administrativas de Fayol (organização, planejamento, comando, controle e coordenação) e o ciclo de Deming (fazer, controlar, planejar e agir) fundamentam o guia. Entenda melhor cada um dos processos.

Iniciação

O processo de iniciação está relacionado às habilidades e atividades indispensáveis à definição inicial do projeto, tais como autorizações, lógicas dos trabalhos e ordens de serviços e orçamentos, por exemplo. Trata-se da definição das fases necessárias à conclusão e ao sucesso do projeto. Algumas atividades deste grupo são: reconhecimento das partes interessadas, autorização pelo cliente, definição do escopo inicial, alinhamento dos objetivos etc.

Planejamento

No grupo de planejamento são estabelecidos os processos relacionados ao escopo do projeto, definição de planos estratégicos, mapeamento das necessidades dos profissionais e lista de prioridades. São esclarecidas também as expectativas e métodos, infraestrutura necessária, documentos, condições orçamentárias e temporais. O PMBOK conta com 24 processos envolvidos no planejamento.

Execução

O processo de execução está ligado ao gerenciamento acertado das equipes (a partir do tempo e dos objetivos), da comunicação e do envolvimento das partes interessadas para garantir a qualidade tanto do projeto quanto do produto. Na execução utiliza-se grande parte do orçamento para produzir e entregar o projeto. Geralmente, neste grupo as partes solicitam as mudanças.

Controle e monitoramento

O grupo de monitoramento e controle ocorre ao longo de todo o projeto. Ele processa as ordens de mudanças, trata das questões orçamentárias, mitiga as circunstâncias não previstas capazes de afetar negativamente o projeto e reduz a paralisação das atividades. Basicamente, são os processos de rastreamento, análise e regulação do desempenho do projeto.

Fechamento

O último grupo se refere à finalização formal de todas as atividades (grupos e processos). Entre as suas atribuições estão a assinatura e aceite do cliente, arquivamento dos registros, pagamentos finais, dentre outros. A etapa de encerramento também corresponde ao momento de avaliação.

Quais áreas de conhecimento são contempladas?

O gerenciamento de projetos abarca 10 áreas do conhecimento (ou de atuação). São elas:

  • Integração: reunião do conhecimento necessário ao gerenciamento do projeto de maneira holística e integrada. Preparação, execução e controle do plano do projeto;   
  • Escopo (project scope management): linha de referência para a entrega do produto. Apanhado de requisitos, preparação da estrutura e divisão do trabalho;
  • Tempo (cronograma): gerenciamento do tempo de cada atividade e da entrega do projeto e do produto para garantir o cumprimento dos prazos;
  • Orçamento (custos): planejamento dos recursos, valor relativo a cada ciclo de vida, administração e controle dos gastos;
  • Qualidade: gestão da qualidade do produto e do projeto para atender às expectativas do cliente;
  • Recursos humanos: organização, planejamento e desenvolvimento das equipes de trabalhos, incluindo os treinamentos;  
  • Comunicação: monitoramento de todas as comunicações (entrada e saída). Geração, armazenamento, recuperação, distribuição e entrega das informações;
  • Riscos: identificação e avaliação quantitativa e qualitativa dos riscos, redução e controle dos eventos prejudiciais ao projeto;
  • Aquisição: trabalho de suprimento, ou seja, compras, fornecedores, contratos, licitações. Aquisição de bens e serviços externos à empresa executora;
  • Partes interessadas (stakeholders): identificação das pessoas e empresas afetadas pelas decisões e resultados do projeto. Análise dos interesses, interdependências, potenciais e impactos do trabalho desenvolvido.

Agora que você sabe o que é o PMBOK, quais vantagens ele apresenta e que áreas e processos ele abarca, não restam dúvidas que utilizá-lo é uma das principais maneiras de garantir o sucesso do projeto, não é mesmo? Quanto maior o conhecimento da ferramenta, melhores serão os resultados!

Quer saber mais sobre o Gerenciamento de Projetos? Entre em contato conosco e descubra como nossos cursos podem alavancar a sua carreira!

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