Aprenda como o gerenciamento de riscos pode ajudar sua empresa

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

Gerenciamento de riscos é coisa muito séria. De acordo com o relatório Causa Mortis das Empresas, do Sebrae, 54% dos gestores brasileiros revelaram enfrentar riscos moderados. Como as três principais causas de encerramento precoce, o estudo identificou a falta de planejamento, a gestão ineficaz e mau comportamento empreendedor. A propósito, é o comportamento inadequado como empresário que aumenta a exposição ao risco.

Nesse aspecto, é a capacidade de se antecipar aos fatos que diferencia empresas que prosperam das que ficam pelo caminho. Quanto mais preparado seu negócio estiver para as adversidades que vêm de fora ou de dentro, menor o risco de prejuízos.

Trataremos desse tema importante e ainda pouco trabalhado pelas empresas brasileiras a partir de agora. Acompanhe com atenção.

O conceito de gerenciamento de riscos

A atividade empresarial comporta riscos que são sempre mais ou menos identificados. Assim, é natural que todo empresário, ao investir ou abrir um negócio, tenha, pelo menos, alguma ideia do retorno esperado e dos possíveis obstáculos a enfrentar.

Por essa perspectiva, pode-se conceituar o gerenciamento de riscos como parte integrante da estratégia de toda empresa. A diferença fica por conta daquelas que tratam do assunto com o aprofundamento necessário.

Não resolve apenas ter uma ideia do risco, sendo necessário encará-lo, identificá-lo e fazer um mapeamento minucioso dos seus fatores. Só assim é possível mitigar as ameaças tanto internas quanto externas.

Considere ainda as estatísticas pouco favoráveis para o Brasil, se comparado com outros países. De acordo com o Global Bankruptcy Report 2017, no ano de 2016, 32,6% das empresas em atividade foram à falência. Essa taxa nos coloca como antepenúltimos colocados, em uma lista em que constam 46 nações.

Como funciona na prática

Implementar a gestão das ameaças que podem comprometer os bons resultados de seu negócio significa compreender que esse é um caminho sem volta. Ou seja, ao começar o processo visando à redução dos riscos, sua empresa deverá se comprometer permanentemente. Quer entender melhor por quê? Siga o passo a passo para colocar essa abordagem em prática:

1. Planejar

A primeira medida a ser tomada para implementar processos de gestão de riscos é o planejamento. É nessa fase que você precisa ter uma resposta clara para a pergunta “como?”. Nesse sentido, faça a seleção da ferramenta a ser utilizada, do método a ser seguido e das pessoas que deverão atuar ao longo de todas as etapas.

2. Identificar

Uma vez que você tenha as ferramentas e saiba que método será utilizado, deverá avançar no estudo dos riscos que poderão levar sua empresa a resultados indesejados. Todos os elementos que representem incerteza deverão ser reconhecidos e registrados.

3. Analisar qualitativa e quantitativamente

Sabendo quais os perigos que podem vir a ser enfrentados, será necessário elencá-los para estabelecer uma escala de prioridades, conforme os impactos que venham a causar. Dessa forma, você estará tratando dos riscos pelo viés qualitativo. Já na análise quantitativa, esses efeitos deverão ser convertidos em números, de maneira a facilitar a antecipação de eventuais ameaças.

4. Soluções

Uma vez identificados, mapeados e quantificados, você poderá montar o plano de ação adequado ao tratamento dos riscos. Por exemplo, se sua empresa identificou que a desvalorização cambial prevista vai afetar seus rendimentos, uma ação que poderia eliminar o risco de prejuízo é explorar mais o mercado nacional.

5. Controle

Ameaças neutralizadas não significam que sua empresa estará imune no futuro. Todo perigo se manifesta ao longo do tempo, portanto, é fundamental contar com indicadores e sistemas que ajudem no monitoramento dos riscos.

As ferramentas que você pode adotar em seu negócio

Como você acaba de ver, o gerenciamento de riscos só pode ser implementado com sucesso quando sua empresa conta com os recursos certos. Por outro lado, é importante perceber que o risco empresarial está no mesmo patamar de outros tipos de ameaças. Assim, é necessário enfrentar esses riscos da mesma forma como fazem profissionais de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalho (SST) ao lidar com os riscos ambientais e ocupacionais.

Não por acaso, a norma ABNT ISO 9001, publicada em 2015, passou a incluir um tópico em que é abordada a mentalidade de risco. De acordo com suas orientações, é necessário que as empresas sejam proativas, e não apenas reativas às ameaças.

Sem mais delongas, veja quais ferramentas vão te ajudar a eliminar ou reduzir a exposição ao risco em sua empresa.

1. Análise Preliminar de Riscos

Pela ferramenta conhecida como APR, sua empresa utiliza uma tabela na qual são listados os processos a serem analisados e as atividades relacionadas. Em seguida, são listadas as possíveis ameaças relacionadas, estabelecendo uma relação de causa e efeito. Assim, é possível determinar que ações serão tomadas no sentido de evitar, corrigir ou controlar os riscos identificados.

2. Failure Mode and Effective Analysis

A ferramenta FMEA opera com base em três indicadores principais:

  • severidade: evidencia em valores quanto um problema compromete a utilização de um recurso e como a integridade das pessoas envolvidas na sua utilização é afetada;

  • ocorrência: mede a frequência com que a falha ou defeito pode acontecer;

  • detecção: sua função é estipular o grau de dificuldade para a percepção de um problema.

A partir dos graus obtidos em cada um desses indicadores, chega-se ao chamado Número de Prioridade de Risco, que sinaliza o quão urgente é a solução.

3. What if

E se a sua empresa decidisse entrar no ramo da exportação hoje, que tipo de ameaças ou problemas enfrentaria? A premissa que leva a essa pergunta é a base da ferramenta What If, que consiste basicamente em usar a expressão “e se?” para avaliar eventuais riscos. É como um brainstorm em equipe, no qual todos os cenários possíveis são levantados.

4. 5 Porquês

Numa linha idêntica à ferramenta What If, os 5 Porquês se resumem a elencar, pelo menos, cinco motivos para um problema. Embora seja assim chamado, nada impede que menos ou mais perguntas sejam feitas, dependendo da ocorrência.

5. Project Management Body of Knowledge

Embora o PMBOK seja utilizado na gestão de projetos, termina por ser, indiretamente, uma ferramenta para a prevenção de riscos. Com ela, sua empresa é capaz de estabelecer uma hierarquia de riscos, de maneira a tratar primeiro dos que causam maior impacto. Essa avaliação é uma das etapas a serem cumpridas ao implementar um projeto, antecipando as melhores técnicas e práticas, inclusive para o gerenciamento de riscos.

Então, ficou mais claro o que fazer em sua empresa para antecipar possíveis ameaças? Agora, assine nossa newsletter para se manter bem informado e ter bons resultados!

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