Aprenda a fazer um gerenciamento de qualidade de forma eficaz

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

O gerenciamento de qualidade é uma das importantes fases da gestão de projetos. Ele é responsável por garantir que os requisitos especificados sejam cumpridos com excelência. Assim, a gestão da qualidade vai além da verificação da execução do trabalho: ela monitora todas as ações desenvolvidas, garantindo a alta eficiência dos projetos. 

É importante que os gestores apliquem as melhores práticas de gerenciamento de projetos para garantir a qualidade em todas as fases. Utilizando um sistema de gestão da qualidade, por exemplo, é possível organizar de modo formal os processos, documentando-os e atribuindo as responsabilidades a cada envolvido.

Se você quer entender melhor sobre o tema e fazer um gerenciamento de forma eficaz, continue a leitura deste post!

O que é o gerenciamento de qualidade segundo o Guia PMBOK?

Primeiramente, é preciso definir o que é o Guia PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge). Esse documento é um guia do conhecimento em gerenciamento de projetos elaborado pela PMI (Project Management Institute), que é uma das instituições mais renomadas da área de gestão.

Nesse documento, é possível que o gestor veja os principais tipos de gerenciamento e aprenda a planejar, executar e controlar os projetos. De forma didática, o texto apresenta conceitos, métodos e experiências sobre o gerenciamento de tempo, custos, aquisições, recursos humanos, comunicação, riscos, partes interessadas, integração e a qualidade. 

O termo qualidade pode ter diferentes significados para cada situação, mas no caso dos projetos, ele se refere ao grau de perfeição, precisão e conformidade atendido pelo produto. Isso significa que essa é a expressão do nível superior que é obtida quando todos os requisitos do escopo são atendidos. 

A qualidade é uma das áreas abordadas no Guia PMBOK, dando subsídios informacionais ao gerente de projetos para que ele possa mensurar os resultados de forma eficaz e comunicar todas as informações necessárias às partes envolvidas no projeto. Ela é dividida em três processos no guia.

  • Planejar o gerenciamento da qualidade: fase de identificação de requisitos e padrões da qualidade do projeto, documentando como será possível verificar a conformidade.

  • Gerenciar a qualidade: execução do plano de gerenciamento da qualidade.

  • Controlar a qualidade: monitoramento e registro dos resultados da execução das atividades para avaliar a performance e as mudanças necessárias.

Para cumprir bem esse gerenciamento, segundo o Guia PMBOK, é preciso investir em planejamento, implementação da garantia da qualidade e no seu monitoramento. 

Por que realizar a gestão de qualidade?

A gestão da qualidade oferece diversos benefícios à empresa, pois ela auxilia na geração de expectativas corretas e facilita o planejamento, a organização, a execução e o controle, além de um melhor gerenciamento das equipes. Entenda melhor esses benefícios a seguir.

Geração de processos mais eficazes

As metodologias ágeis facilitam a criação de processos mais eficazes, mas de forma complementar, é preciso que essas ações estejam estruturadas para gerar bons resultados. 

Ao gerenciar a qualidade, é possível criar base para processos internos e padronizar metodologias, otimizando a produtividade e criando ações cada vez mais estratégicas. 

Redução de riscos 

Há riscos inerentes aos projetos, mas há alguns que podem ser evitados ou reduzidos com o controle da qualidade. Essa gestão ajuda a identificar falhas de processos e não conformidades dentro do escopo inicial. Além disso, é possível prevenir problemas com ações baseadas em situações que já ocorreram. 

Economia de recursos

Os orçamentos de projetos estão cada vez mais enxutos e com exigências maiores. Para que os recursos não sejam extrapolados, o gestor precisa criar alternativas que garantam a excelência sem a perda da qualidade. Dessa forma, a gestão da qualidade se faz necessária e estratégica para a manutenção do orçamento e para a economia de recursos. 

Progresso em relação à eficiência

Ao implementar as práticas de gestão da qualidade, é possível entender as necessidades do cliente e transformá-las em requisitos a serem seguidos no projeto. Assim, as necessidades são traduzidas em funcionalidades, melhorando a eficiência. Quando a equipe compreende o roteiro a ser seguido e o repete várias vezes, automaticamente melhora o cronograma da entrega e a qualidade da atuação. 

Comprometimento da equipe

Quando toda a equipe se preocupa com a qualidade do projeto, as etapas acontecem de forma mais fluida e organizada. A responsabilidade não deve ser centralizada no gestor, mas distribuída entre todo time. Assim, os envolvidos serão corresponsáveis pelo sucesso do projeto. 

Satisfação do cliente

A gestão da qualidade garante a satisfação do cliente, afinal, se todos os requisitos forem entregues conforme o acordado, o cliente não só ficará satisfeito com a entrega, mas verá a geração de valor do resultado, superando suas expectativas iniciais. 

Como elaborar um plano de gerenciamento de qualidade? 

Segundo o PMBOK, é possível traçar estratégias para projetos de qualquer área. Para que o gestor entenda completamente esse processo e saiba implementá-lo nas organizações, é importante realizar uma pós-graduação nessa área. Assim, o profissional consegue compreender melhor as 3 fases do plano de gerenciamento da qualidade e colocá-los em prática. 

O primeiro passo é planejar esse gerenciamento, criando requisitos e padrões para o projeto. Nessa fase são criadas perguntas acerca dos critérios, das expectativas, do orçamento e parâmetros utilizados, como a ISO 9001. Nesse planejamento também é preciso considerar leis ambientais, critérios de excelência e metodologias reconhecidas. 

Depois, é necessário garantir a qualidade. Os processos estão sendo realizados? O cronograma está sendo seguido? Cada equipe é responsável por uma tarefa? Em seguida, implementa-se a fase do controle da qualidade. Nesse caso, é preciso fazer testes e avaliações para verificar se o esperado está sendo cumprido. Essa etapa deve ser realizada em todo processo, pois diminui as ações corretivas em função das ações preventivas. 

O plano de gerenciamento deve trazer, de forma clara, os seguintes itens:

  • escopo com os requisitos do projeto;

  • objetivos da qualidade;

  • responsabilidade de cada colaborador;

  • controle de desenvolvimento; 

  • riscos e planos de ação para contê-los;

  • auditorias e testes;

  • cronograma com as entregas. 

O gerenciamento da qualidade é muito importante para manter o sucesso do projeto. É por meio dessa gestão que as conformidades serão garantidas e as responsabilidades serão atribuídas.

Para facilitar o processo de aprendizagem do gerente, é importante que o profissional busque treinamentos e especializações na área. A UCL, por exemplo, oferece o MBA de Gestão Integrada em Qualidade e Certificações. Esse programa fornece ferramentas e elementos estratégicos aos participantes para contribuir com a qualidade e a segurança dos trabalhadores na empresa. 

Se você tem interesse em aprender mais sobre o tema, acesse nosso site e veja os detalhes da pós-graduação!

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