7 passos práticos para fazer um encerramento de projeto

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

Depois de planejar e executar, é hora de realizar o encerramento do projeto. Contudo, em alguns casos, os gestores acabam negligenciando alguns passos, como a elaboração de testes, feedback para o cliente ou relatório final, e isso deixa o processo um pouco menos profissional. Portanto, essa conclusão é tão importante como qualquer outra fase no gerenciamento de projetos

No encerramento, é possível agrupar de forma clara todos os dados, comparar expectativas e resultados e passar detalhes aos envolvidos do projeto, evitando a repetição de erros que tenham ocorrido naquele procedimento. 

Se você quer conhecer melhor essa fase e aprender como fazê-la da melhor maneira, continue lendo este conteúdo!

O que é a finalização de um projeto

O Guia PMBOK relata que o processo de finalização de um projeto é o momento em que as atividades dos grupos de gerenciamento são concluídas. Assim, é preciso que o término seja formalizado e documentado para possíveis conferências no futuro. 

Os projetos podem ser encerrados por alguns motivos: 

  • absorção: o projeto passa a ser uma unidade de negócio independente;
  • esgotamento: os recursos são cortados;
  • integração: os recursos são retirados do projeto atual e devolvidos ou alocados em outro trabalho; 
  • extinção: o projeto é concluído e aprovado. 

Assim como os gestores de projeto precisam formalizar e planejar o início dos processos, há a necessidade de oficialização dos trâmites de finalização. Afinal, essa documentação auxilia no gerenciamento de riscos e mostra se todas as obrigações foram cumpridas tanto por parte do contratante quanto por parte do contratado. 

7 passos para encerrar um projeto

Ao executar um bom encerramento de projeto, o gestor se resguarda de possíveis pendências no futuro e entende em quais pontos são necessárias melhorias. É importante dizer que existem alguns passos que precisam ser seguidos, mas eles podem variar em cada organização. 

Veja os principais!

1. Organize as lições aprendidas

Um gestor só conseguirá fazer um bom relatório se souber exatamente o que aconteceu em todas as etapas. Portanto, o primeiro passo para fazer um bom encerramento é coletar e organizar as lições aprendidas com toda a equipe. Além disso, essas informações auxiliam no Project Management Office (PMO) para verificar o que funciona ou não. 

Assim, é importante que todas as partes interessadas ajudem na construção desse documento, mostrando o que deu certo em cada etapa e o que pode ser melhorado. Ao fim, uma reunião deve ser realizada para discutir as lições aprendidas e consolidar um documento final padronizado com todas as informações. 

2. Faça o encerramento interno 

Outra passo importante é fazer o encerramento interno das atividades. O gestor não deve monopolizar essa fase em suas mãos, pois todos os envolvidos devem ser comunicados a fim de repassar informações às áreas operacionais. 

Assim, nessa fase, o gestor deve identificar as entregas repassadas em relação aos equipamentos e materiais, dar baixa em contratos de manutenção com serviços terceirizados, incluir informações em planilhas, fluxogramas e informações financeiras. Além disso, é recomendado manter os dados dos fornecedores atualizados para facilitar nas oportunidades futuras. 

3. Faça o encerramento externo 

Além do encerramento interno, o externo deve ser realizado diretamente com o cliente. É nesse momento que ele dá o aceite final do projeto e registra que todas as pendências então encerradas e o projeto, concluído. 

Podemos dizer que essa é a fase mais importante do encerramento, pois, sem um termo de conclusão, o gerente ainda será responsável pelo trabalho, ou seja, a vinculação ainda existe até uma formalização documental.

Seguindo os dois passos iniciais, terceiro, de encerramento externo, acontece mais naturalmente e de forma mais simples, já que grande parte das informações já foi organizada. 

4. Realoque a equipe

Depois de encerrar um projeto, parte da equipe pode ficar ociosa sem uma nova demanda. Portanto, caberá ao gestor de projetos realocar as pessoas em novos postos de trabalho ou novos projetos. Além disso, é importante que o responsável reconheça o trabalho de cada um e agradeça pelo comprometimento e empenho. 

5. Construa um relatório final 

Com todos os dados dos processos anteriores em mãos, construir um relatório final com todas as informações fica mais fácil. Como as etapas anteriores foram divididas, fica mais claro compilar tudo em um documento único. É aqui que o gerente reconhece os erros do planejamento e se algum processo precisava de mais pessoas ou mais supervisão, identifica colaboradores que se destacaram, entre outros. 

Além disso, esse documento servirá de comparação para futuros projetos finalizados, analisando custos e equipe e melhorando o modo de avaliar e documentar processos. 

6. Treine sua equipe

Por vezes, o relatório final demonstra que algumas falhas ocorreram por falta de conhecimento ou experiência da equipe. Dessa forma, não há como economizar recursos, por exemplo, se a equipe envolvida não souber utilizá-los da melhor maneira. Portanto, o treinamento é de extrema importância e suprem demandas que o feedback simples não consegue atender. 

7. Arquive corretamente os documentos 

As empresas sabem da importância do correto arquivamento de documentos, mas, à vezes, elas não organizam ou centralizam essas informações. O mais indicado é que todas as informações, contratos e termos estejam juntos em um só lugar, de preferência em meio digital, para facilitar a recuperação e a análise sempre que for necessário. Além do mais, é importante enviar esse arquivo ao cliente, para que ele tenha um cópia de tudo o que foi feito durante o projeto. 

Importância do encerramento de projeto

Ao realizar o encerramento, o gerente de projetos entende a importância desse processo para evitar que erros e problemas ocorram no futuro. Sabemos, também, que a gestão exige um aperfeiçoamento contínuo e essa melhoria só vem com essas análises.  

O gestor deve identificar os elementos que serão adaptados para atender melhor às especificidades do projeto. Assim, essa fase de finalização precisa ser planejada em conjunto com a equipe desde o início, para decidir em conjunto critérios, técnicas e metas. 

Concluímos que o encerramento de projeto não é uma fase complicada, mas que precisa ser valorizada como qualquer outro procedimento. Se você entende a necessidade dessa fase, mas ainda não se sente pronto para executá-la com qualidade, que tal entrar em contato com a nossa equipe e receber mais informações sobre o nosso curso de Gerenciamento de Projetos? 

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