4 principais ferramentas de mapeamento de processos que você precisa conhecer

Tempo de leitura: 6 min

Ferramentas de mapeamento de processos são extremamente úteis em empresas de todos os segmentos. Com elas, é possível identificar falhas corrigi-las. Setores como indústria de transformação, alimentos e até empresas de um só funcionário podem se beneficiar com os resultados fornecidos.

Imagine, por exemplo, que você tem um restaurante. Sua contabilidade apura o fluxo de caixa, envia relatórios, faz a conciliação bancária à risca mas, mesmo assim, suas contas não batem. Nesse caso, é bem possível que o gargalo de produção esteja em um processo mal elaborado, no qual uma falha pode estar oculta.

Sendo assim, aprender a mapear seus processos seria como um raio-x. Um osso fraturado apresenta a dor como sintoma, mas sem os raios catódicos, não é possível saber onde exatamente é o foco do desconforto. Ou seja, ao mapear um processo, você poderá apontar onde está o erro ou onde sua empresa pode melhorar, da mesma forma que uma imagem radiográfica serve para apontar onde um osso está lesionado.

Assim sendo, vamos listar a seguir as ferramentas mais eficazes na hora de “radiografar” sua empresa. Acompanhe o conteúdo!

1. SIPOC

Uma das ferramentas de mapeamento de processos mais utilizadas em todo o mundo é conhecida pela sigla SIPOC. Seu significado já ajuda a entender de que forma ela pode ser útil:

  • suppliers — fornecedores;

  • inputs — entradas;

  • process — processo;

  • outputs — saídas;

  • customers — clientes.

Portanto, cada elemento em uma análise SIPOC faz parte de uma etapa do processo a ser mapeado. Para ajudar a compreender melhor como funciona, veja um exemplo simplificado de sua aplicação em uma fábrica de bolos.

Fornecedor: atacadista de doces.

Entrada: encomenda de 300 unidades de brigadeiro.

Processo: preparar doces.

Saída: 300 unidades prontas para venda.

Cliente: delivery no local solicitado.

Em alguns casos, o SIPOC tem a sua ordem invertida, passando a ser utilizado como COPIS. Ou seja, em vez do mapeamento começar no fornecedor, a análise do processo começa no cliente, que é sempre o foco na prestação de um serviço. Trata-se de uma ferramenta de mapeamento de processos relativamente extensa, com uma grande quantidade de símbolos e convenções gráficas em sua montagem.

2. VSM

O Value Stream Mapping tem uma aplicação similar à da ferramenta SIPOC, só que com um nível de detalhe ainda maior. Por isso, o VSM é mais indicado em:

  • empresas em que vários departamentos ou setores estão envolvidos na cadeia produtiva;

  • casos em que um mapa de processos mais simples não seja suficiente para apontar falhas ou identificar pontos de melhora;

  • momentos nos quais se deseja fazer um investimento de grande porte com a intenção de gerar economia proporcional.

Não por acaso, é amplamente utilizado por fábricas, supermercados e lojas que operam com maior variedade de produtos. Também por isso, o VSM é ideal para empresas que trabalham com estoques e fluxos recorrentes e intensos de mercadorias. De qualquer forma, pode-se resumir o VSM em 4 etapas básicas, todas elas focadas no cliente e na metodologia Lean:

  • operacional — etapa em que é montado o mapa de entradas e saídas até a entrega de um produto/serviço;

  • suporte — o objetivo dessa etapa é levantar a capacidade produtiva e as quantidades ideias de entrega em cada momento da parte operacional;

  • pessoas — aqui, são identificadas as pessoas que participam dos processos já mapeados anteriormente:;

  • dores do cliente — etapa que consiste em reconhecer quais são os problemas pelo ponto de vista do cliente, de modo a adotar as soluções adequadas.

3. BPI

Outra ferramenta cujo nome é, de certa forma, autoexplicativo, é a Business Process Improvement (BPI). Portanto, ela serve como referência para empresas que desejam melhorar algum processo em que acreditam que podem avançar ou entregar resultados melhores.

O BPI se caracteriza por ser um instrumento bastante maleável, ou seja, não há um modelo fixo para sua implementação. Tudo vai depender do tipo de melhoria que se deseja obter e, a partir disso, formular questões que levem a respostas conclusivas.

Seja como for, podemos destacar cinco fases principais, conforme orienta o especialista em performance H. James Harrington em seu livro Business Process Improvement:

Fase 1 — organizar para a melhorar

Na primeira fase do BPI, o objetivo é garantir o sucesso dos processos por meio da nomeação de líderes que auxiliarão ao longo das próximas etapas.

Fase 2 — dimensionamento do processo

Já na segunda etapa, conforme aponta o professor Harrington, a meta é entender com detalhes todas as dimensões dos processos em vigor. Tempo de execução, quantidades e tudo que possa ser quantificado podem compor os resultados desta análise.

Fase 3 — racionalização do processo

Avançando para uma terceira fase, a empresa pode atuar mais diretamente na adaptação de melhorias e na melhora geral dos processos previamente identificados.

Fase 4 — medição e controle do processo

Não se pode gerenciar o que não se mede. Por isso, na quarta etapa do BPI, é preciso implementar sistemas que permitam controlar os processos ao longo do tempo.

Fase 5 — melhorar continuamente

Com processos otimizados e os instrumentos e métodos de controle implementados, viabiliza-se a melhoria contínua, conforme os bons princípios Kaizen.

4. Fluxograma

É preciso destacar que toda ferramenta para mapear processos é, essencialmente, visual. As que você acabou de conhecer agora se assemelham nesse aspecto, ou seja, além de saber como fazê-las, é necessário utilizar os símbolos convencionados na construção de mapas de processos.

Todos os símbolos que você deverá utilizar compõem a chamada Unified Modeling Language (UML), de acordo com normas internacionais para design de processos. Dito isso, o Fluxograma é mais uma das ferramentas que você poderá utilizar para mapear processos de diversos tipos. Os principais deles são:

  • Fluxograma de processos Funcional — nele, são divididos os processos entre setores ou departamentos;

  • Fluxograma de Processos Linear — esquema gráfico em que é mostrada a sequência de tarefas juntamente com os pontos de decisão ao longo do fluxo;

  • Fluxograma Redes Petri — muito usado por profissionais de TI, nele há uma regra imutável: símbolos iguais não podem jamais se conectar;

  • Fluxograma EPC — a base de sua modelagem é ligar elementos ativos e passivos em um processo;

  • Fluxograma BPMN — já o fluxograma BPMN é composto invariavelmente por eventos, atividades e gateways (pontos de tomada de decisão).

Percebe como a área de mapeamento de processos pode render resultados muito bons se for corretamente aplicada? É por isso que, quanto mais especializado nesse assunto, mais capacitado você será na área de gerenciamento de projetos.

Vimos neste artigo algumas das ferramentas de mapeamento de processos mais utilizadas por empresas altamente eficazes em todo o mundo. Esperamos que o material contribua para melhorar a gestão do seu negócio e, assim, gerar muito mais valor para você e seus clientes.

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